Kontogiannis’ book is all the more laudable, therefore, in its attempt to provide an overall framework for the subject, to establish some general ground-rules for studying these different categories of fortification, and to provide a rough chronology for developments throughout the lands of the medieval East Roman empire from the fifth to the fifteenth century. Importantly, the author is keen to place these architectural phenomena in their social, cultural, economic, political, and institutional contexts, and to trace the paths of their evolution across the longer term to help make sense of the broader story of East Roman politics and society.
Nikos D. Kontogiannis. Byzantine Fortifications: Protecting the Roman Empire in the East. Pen and Sword Military, 2022.